The most important Republican was Jonathan Bourne Jr. (senator 19071913 and national leader of progressive causes 19111912). Edwards, Barry C. "Putting Hoover on the Map: Was the 31st President a Progressive." , In the south, prohibition was high on the agenda but controversial.  Inspired by crusading Judge Ben Lindsey of Denver, cities established juvenile courts to deal with disruptive teenagers without sending them to adult prisons. In 1913, Congress passed the WebbKenyon Act, which forbade the transport of liquor into dry states. Originally, income tax (the amount of money the government takes from your salary) was based on your state's population. Which, if any, have an undetermined numerical value? Many labor unions, trade groups, and professional, civic, and religious associations were founded. Indeed Richard Hosfstadter argued that Progressivism was, "a phase in the history of the Protestant conscience, a latter-day Protestant revival. The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed in 1933, with the passage of the Twenty-First Amendment, thanks to a well-organized repeal campaign led by Catholics (who stressed personal liberty) and businessmen (who stressed the lost tax revenue). The railroad system was virtually complete; the need was for much better roads.  The South had fewer cars and trucks and much less money, but it worked through highly visible demonstration projects like the "Dixie Highway. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic. Although the Progressive Era was characterized by public support for World War I under Woodrow Wilson, there was also a substantial opposition to the war. Some was based on personalitiesespecially La Follette's style of violent personal attacks against other Progressives, and some was based on who should pay, with the division between farmers (who paid property taxes) and the urban element (which paid income taxes). Roosevelt gave these journalists their nickname when he complained they were not being helpful by raking up too much muck. 17th Amendment Overview & History | What Is the 17th Amendment?  A handful of eugenics advocates were also involved in immigration restriction for their own pseudo-scientific reasons. The most radical and controversial amendment came during the anti-German craze of World War I that helped the Progressives and others push through their plan for prohibition through the 18th amendment (once the Progressives fell out of power the 21st amendment repealed the 18th in 1933). Let's take a couple of moments to review what we've learned! During the 1880s, referendums were held at the state level to enact prohibition amendments. There were multiple progressive amendments. In particular, the mixing of black and white pleasure-seekers in "black-and-tan" clubs troubled Progressive reformers. Theodore Roosevelt & the Progressive Era Reforms, Goals & Beliefs | Who Were the Progressives? , While anti-imperialist sentiments had been prevalent in the United States during this time, the acquisition of the Philippines sparked the relatively minor population into action. The banking system was transformed with the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913.  He tried for a national leadership role in 1912 but blundered badly in a highly embarrassing speech to leading journalists. The most important political leaders during this time were Theodore Roosevelt, and Robert M. La Follette. But both Bellamy and James expressed the core progressive commitment to moderate the American obsession with individual rights and private property, which they saw as sanctioning a dangerous commercial power inimical to individual freedom. The early decades of the twentieth century ushered in a wave of Progressive reforms, resulting in unprecedented social and political reform. A number of political and social reforms of the era brought major changes to American government and civic and social life. Robert M. La Follette, the most famous leader of Midwestern progressivism, began his career by winning election against his state's Republican party in 1900. , To revitalize democracy, progressives established direct primary elections, direct election of senators (rather than by state legislatures), initiative and referendum, and women's suffrage which was promoted to advance democracy and bring a "purer" female vote into the arena. By 1900 middle class "progressive" reformers everywhere were studying it. While the Oregon System was very successful, identify the two issues that broke the alliance between the middle-class urbanites, and workers and farmers. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was founded in response to the lack of representation for unskilled and foreign-born workers.Identify the goals and accomplishments of these two organizations. Social change includes the 18th amendment, which responded to rising problems related to alcohol in the 20th century, and banned the sale, manufacturing and transportation of alcohol.  Spreading the message of reform through mass-circulation newspapers and magazines by "probing the dark corners of American life" were investigative journalists known as muckrakers". Bellamys reformed society had thus, as his protagonist Julian West notes with great satisfaction, simply applied the principle of universal military service, as it was understood during the 19th century, to the labor question. In Bellamys utopian world there were no battlefields, but those who displayed exceptional valour in promoting the prosperity of society were honoured for their service. Wisconsin governor Robert La Follette initiated state Progressive reforms, commonly referred to as the "Wisconsin Idea.". , Another theme was bringing to bear scientific, medical, and engineering solutions to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and much else. Immigrants were not for reform either, fearing that such a thing would Americanize their children. On the one hand, Roosevelt was acting to sabotage Taft's campaign promises. The electorate in each state voted for people to represent them in their state legislature (their state's government), and the state legislature was then responsible for electing that state's two senators. Analyze the political cartoon depicting President Theodore Roosevelt.  These programs often operated through the public school system, which expanded dramatically. This system is called apportionment. Close ties were built with the local business community, as in the "community chest" movement. Biographer William Harbaugh argues: Woodrow Wilson gained a national reputation as governor of New Jersey by defeating the bosses and pushing through a progressive agenda. Leroy G. Dorsey, "Preaching Morality in Modern America: Theodore Roosevelt's Rhetorical Progressivism." In the 1890s, the South witnessed a decrease in the possibility of Republican or Populist or coalition victories in most elections, with the Democratic Party gaining full control over all statewide Southern elections. Progressive Era Reforms | Examples, Accomplishments & History, The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions, Ku Klux Klan Nativism & Eugenics | Movement & History. A massive flood in Dayton in 1913 killed 400 people and caused $100 million in property damage. As the industrial revolution took hold of the American economy and as mass production, alienation, and urbanization appeared to be unstoppable trends, Americans looked for solutions that could soften the effects of change without slowing down the engines of progress. A married woman is economically dependent on her husband, which strengthens the family bond. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Others such as Lincoln Steffens exposed political corruption in many large cities; Ida Tarbell is famed for her criticisms of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Is this multiple choice? The Roosevelt in approach incorporated a near-mystical faith of the ennobling nature of war. , President Taft signed the March 4, 1913, bill (the last day of his presidency), establishing the Department of Labor as a Cabinet-level department, replacing the previous Department of Commerce and Labor. There was significant political and social reform at both the state and national levels. Up until the passing of the17th amendment, senators were elected by state legislatures. " Similar ideas and language had already been used previously in the Monroe Doctrine, wherein Roosevelt claimed that the United States could serve as the police of the world, using its power to end unrest and wrongdoing on the western hemisphere. Incorrect Answer(s) Middle School US History: Tutoring Solution, The American Progressive Era: Tutoring Solution, Psychological Research & Experimental Design, All Teacher Certification Test Prep Courses, The Limitations and End of the Progressive Movement, First Contacts in the Americas: Tutoring Solution, Settling the North American Colonies: Tutoring Solution, After the American Revolution: Tutoring Solution, The Jacksonian Democracy: Tutoring Solution, Manifest Destiny & Expansion: Tutoring Solution, Buildup to the American Civil War: Tutoring Solution, The American Civil War: Tutoring Solution, After the Civil War - Reconstruction: Tutoring Solution, The American Industrialization Era: Tutoring Solution, Theodore Roosevelt & the Progressives: Definition and Political Agenda, The Muckrakers of the Progressive Era: Definition and Influence, Work and Home Improvements of the Progressive Era, Trust Busting and Government Regulations on Economy & Industry in the Progressive Era, Progressive Politics: Definition, Reforms & Amendments, Presidential Election of 1912: Candidates, Platforms & Significance, African Americans in the Progressive Era: Issues & Leaders, Women's Suffrage & Early Feminism: Movement, 19th Amendment & Leaders, The Progressive Era: Definition & Amendments, American Imperialism & World War l: Tutoring Solution, America & the Great Depression: Tutoring Solution, America & the Second World War: Tutoring Solution, Post-War and the Cold War: Tutoring Solution, Civil Rights Movements in America: Tutoring Solution, America from 1992 to the Present: Tutoring Solution, AP European History: Homeschool Curriculum, Middle School World History: Homeschool Curriculum, CLEP Western Civilization I - Ancient Near East to 1648 Prep, DSST Western Europe Since 1945: Study Guide & Test Prep, World Conflicts Since 1900: Certificate Program, Education During the Progressive Era: Reform & Growth of Urban Education. La Follette forfeited his stature as a national leader of progressive Republicans, while remaining a power in Wisconsin. , Disturbed by the waste, inefficiency, stubbornness, corruption, and injustices of the Gilded Age, the Progressives were committed to changing and reforming every aspect of the state, society and economy. , Robert M. La Follette, and his family, were the dominant forces of progressivism in Wisconsin from the late 1890s to the early 1940s. ", Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 19451960,", Debra Reid, "Rural African Americans and Progressive Reform,", Dianne D. Glave, "'A Garden so Brilliant With Colors, so Original in its Design': Rural African American Women, Gardening, Progressive Reform, and the Foundation of an African American Environmental Perspective. The book was published as a series of articles in McClure's Magazine from 1902 to 1904. The Democrats were a minor factor in the state, but he did form coalitions with the active Socialist Party in Milwaukee. Industrialization in the United States led to social movements that fought to protect worker rights and diminish child labor. As the United States entered World War I, the Conscription Act banned the sale of liquor near military bases. The 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th. As Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, played a key role in upholding many reforms, tending to align with Oliver Wendell Holmes. Farmers and workers relied heavily on their children to work and help the family's income. Identify the trends and events that catalyzed the large-scale global movement of people that took place during the Progressive era.  Reform projects were especially notable in rural areas, where the great majority of Southern blacks lived. The largest numbers of immigrants arriving in the United States were from southern and eastern Europen. The amendment was passed by Congress on July 2, 1909, and ratified on Feb. 3, 1913.  Historians have moved back in time emphasizing the Progressive reformers at the municipal and state levels in the 1890s.  These Progressive reforms were soon replicated in other states, including Idaho, Washington, and Wisconsin, and today roughly half of U.S. states have initiative, referendum and recall provisions in their state constitutions. There were 2.4million miles of rural dirt rural roads in 1914; 100,000 miles had been improved with grading and gravel, and 3000 miles were given high quality surfacing. ", Rural schools were often poorly funded, one room operations. in Christopher M. Nichols and Nancy C. Unger, eds. He won 1/6 of the national vote, but carried only his home state. His majority opinion in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad v. Interstate Commerce Commission upheld the right of the federal government to regulate the hours of railroad workers. This amendment enacted a federal income tax.  Women consolidated their gains after the success of the suffrage movement, and moved into causes such as world peace, good government, maternal care (the SheppardTowner Act of 1921), and local support for education and public health. In 1911, Taft's diplomats signed wide-ranging arbitration treaties with France and Britain. He states that ultimately Progressives "were responsible for bringing scientific racism to an end". Democratic Party (Ohio). In their efforts to grapple with the challenges of industrialization, progressives championed three principal causes. , Much less settled is the question of when the era ended. Richard Hofstadter, for example, in 1955 wrote that prohibition, "was a pseudo-reform, a pinched, parochial substitute for reform" that "was carried about America by the ruralevangelical virus". It prohibited the manufacturing, sale or transport of intoxicating beverages within the United States, as well as import and export. The main goal of the Progressive Era is to improve quality of life for all. After experimenting in the early 20th century with cooperation with business in the National Civic Federation, the AFL turned after 1906 to a working political alliance with the Democratic party. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Along the Color Line The government brief argued that dismemberment would correct this inequity and would force and restore normal competition. ", Tindall stresses the continuing importance of the Progressive movement in the South in the 1920s involving increased democracy, efficient government, corporate regulation, social justice, and governmental public service. The Commission on Training Camp Activities sought to "socialize and Americanize" troops, especially native-born and foreign-born men, to meet the expected level of societal standards and integrate them into American culture. Foreign policy of the Theodore Roosevelt administration, Foreign policy of the Woodrow Wilson administration, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad v. Interstate Commerce Commission, History of women in the United States Progressive era: 19001940, National American Woman Suffrage Association, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Initiatives and referendums in the United States, American urban history Progressive era: 1890s1920s, History of direct democracy in the United States, Direct Democracy League for initiative and referendum in California, "United States History. , In the Gilded Age (late 19th century), the parties were reluctant to involve the federal government too heavily in the private sector, except in the area of railroads and tariffs. Dayton adopted his policies; by 1920, 177 American cities had followed suit and adopted city manager governments. Advertisement Advertisement  The Southern Education Board came together to publicize the importance of reform. Progressives around the country put up campaigns to push for an improvement in public education and to make education mandatory. answer choices Judicial authority expanding to include administering local elections. Columbia University, 1958. The Progressive Movement started in the 1870s and lasted to 1920. Congress enacted a law regulating railroads in 1887 (the Interstate Commerce Act), and one preventing large firms from controlling a single industry in 1890 (the Sherman Antitrust Act). , This movement targeted the regulations of huge monopolies and corporations. Score 1 User: What was the red scare? He drew from the American past a history of resistance to capitalist wage relations that was fundamentally liberal, and he reclaimed an idea that progressives had allowed to lapsethat working for wages was a lesser form of liberty. The Progressive Era Movement definition is a period where the United States went through significant social and political reform. "Politics in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era." , In the North Robert LaFollette introduced the primary in Wisconsin in 1904. A woman who runs for office is allowed to step away from her familial duties to support the community. It then flooded the state with letters seeking new members, money, and endorsements from organizations like the State Federation of Labor. Originators of progressive ideals and efforts, Popular democracy: Initiative and referendum, Gender, ethnic, business, labor, religion. Weegy: "Red Scare" refers to the fear of communism in the USA during the 1920 s. Score 1 User: What name was given to journalism net focused on eye-catching stories, and not necessarily the truth  In 1907, Georgia and Alabama were the first states to go dry followed by Oklahoma, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee in the following years. In what ways did Progressivism include both democratic and antidemocratic impulses? in Social Studies Education. In 1911, California governor Hiram Johnson established the Oregon System of "Initiative, Referendum, and Recall" in his state, viewing them as good influences for citizen participation against the historic influence of large corporations on state lawmakers. Videos. Identify the statements that describe workmen's compensation laws enacted by 1913. One of the most influential political machines was Tammany Hall in New York City led by William ''Boss'' Tweed. Progressive-Era reformers sought to use the federal government to make sweeping changes in politics, education, economics, and society. He avoided controversial tariff and money issues. Log in for more information. ", John D. Buenker, "An American kulturkampf: The birth pangs of cultural pluralism. The ratification of the 16th amendment finally passed an income tax that was being discussed since the time following the Civil War. , After reorganizations prices to consumers went up, as the replacement firms lost the size efficiency of the trust. A 1907 report to Secretary of War Taft provided a summary of what the American civil administration had achieved. "Albert Baird Cummins and the progressive movement in Iowa" . Throughout the Progressive Era, it remained one of the prominent causes associated with Progressivism at the local, state and national level, though support across the full breadth of Progressives was mixed. Both opposed corruption and trusts. Idaho, Complete the following passage about Progressivism in the Native American community. Allen F. Davis, "The social workers and the progressive party, 1912-1916.  Midwestern mayors--especially Hazen S. Pingree and Tom L. Johnson, led early reforms against boss-dominated municipal politics, while Samuel M. Jones advocated public ownership of local utilities. During the Progressive Era, one of the biggest sticking points was government corruption, and the election of senators was not immune from this. The Progressive Era (1890-1920s) was a turning point in American history during which many important reforms were passed. Labor organizations in different industries were founded to be legal representations for workers, but not all workers. He tried, without success, to lower the high protective tariff in Washington.  On the other hand, the rapid growth of industry called for a greater and expanding labor pool that could not be met by natural birth rates. Maya Welch is an experienced and Massachusetts certified history teacher who spent over seven years teaching middle and high school. They wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings. Unfortunately, women's suffrage fell by the wayside as abolition and the Civil War gained momentum and, according to some, took priority. Al Capone was one of the most well-known criminals to partake in illegal alcohol sales. The Democrats lowered tariffs with the Underwood Tariff in 1913, though its effects were overwhelmed by the changes in trade caused by the World War that broke out in 1914.  Progressives sought to address the problems caused by rapid industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and political corruption; and by the enormous concentration of industrial ownership in monopolies. 187220, William H. Harbaugh, "Roosevelt, Theodore (27 October 1858 06 January 1919)", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFShesol2010 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFShoemaker2004 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHenretta2006 (, James A. Henretta, "Charles Evans Hughes and the strange death of liberal America.". What happened to the Progressive Movement in the 1920s?, Putnam, Jackson K. The Persistence of Progressivism in the 1920s: The Case of California., Zieger, Robert H. "Labor, Progressivism, and Herbert Hoover in the 1920's. Wik, for example, argues that Ford's "views on technology and the mechanization of rural America were generally enlightened, progressive, and often far ahead of his times. Like the Populists, who flourished at the end of the 19th century, the progressives invoked the Preamble to the Constitution to assert their purpose of making We the Peoplethe whole peopleeffective in strengthening the federal governments authority to regulate society and the economy. Key democratic leaders were William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al Smith. In general, they accepted the concept of laissez-faire, a doctrine opposing government interference in the economy except to maintain law and order. Reforms were spurred by the activities of such prominent figures as Jane Addams, Upton Sinclair, and President Theodore Roosevelt. During World War I, the Progressives strongly promoted Americanization programs, designed to modernize the recent immigrants and turn them into model American citizens, while diminishing loyalties to the old country. Immediately after the Civil War, Susan B. Anthony, a strong and outspoken advocate of women's rights, demanded that the Fourteenth Amendment include a guarantee of the vote for women as well as for African-American males. The group's further efforts led to successful ballot initiatives implementing a direct primary system in 1904, and allowing citizens to directly recall public officials in 1908. "Preserving the Progressive Spirit in a Conservative Time: The Joint Reform Efforts of Justice Brandeis and Professor Frankfurter, 19161933. Branden Little. There they would be taught by full-time professional teachers who had graduated from the states' teachers colleges, were certified, and were monitored by the county superintendents. Outside of government, Jane Addams, Grace Abbott, Edith Abbott, and Sophonisba Breckinridge were influential reformers. Take a few moments to picture life during that time. "Review of Jones, Marian Moser, Paul R. Amato, and Shelley Irving, "Historical trends in divorce in the United States." Mary Richmond and Jane Addams: From Moral Certainty to Rational Inquiry in Social Work Practice.  Alternatively called home arts, the major curriculum reform in women's education was influenced by the publication of Treatise on Domestic Economy, written by Catherine Beecher in 1843. They worked to limit child labor in the textile mills, and supported public health campaigns to eradicate hookworm and other debilitating diseases. However he was defeated by former President Theodore Roosevelt, who had broken with his protg Taft in 1910. , One of the most impacting issues African Americans had to face during the Progressive Era was the right to vote. The NAWSA was the largest and most important suffrage organization in the United States, and was the primary promoter of women's right to vote. The Stalwart counterattack said the Progressives were too haughty, too beholden to experts, too eager to regulate, and too expensive. Calling themselves "The New Nationalists", Croly and Walter Weyl sought to remedy the relatively weak national institutions with a strong federal government. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States experienced an industrial boom. ", Gene Clanton, "Populism, Progressivism, and Equality: The Kansas Paradigm". When the colonists first arrived in America, they were farmers, but that all changed during the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s. , Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda.  Scientific management, as promulgated by Frederick Winslow Taylor, became a watchword for industrial efficiency and elimination of waste, with the stopwatch as its symbol.